Health care sharing ministries are an alternative to regular health insurance but they are a poor substitute for most patients and an annoyance (at best) for most hospitals and physicians. The basic idea is that people of similar religious beliefs pool their money in order to help each other pay for their medical bills. The concept arose from Amish and Mennonite communities that do not normally participate in programs like health insurance.
As an example, a number of years ago, I was the attending physician in our medical intensive care unit when a young Amish man was transferred from a rural hospital with a cardiac sarcoma, a rare malignant tumor of the heart muscle that is usually incurable and fatal. He lived on a mechanical ventilator for a couple of weeks before dying and in the process, generated a huge medical bill. Like most Ohio Amish at the time, he did not have health insurance. A few months after his death, an older Amish man walked into the MICU carrying a bundle of cash and handed it to the unit clerk. Their community had taken up collections to pay for his hospital charges. This was their normal practice to pay for medical bills.
About 30 years ago, this concept expanded to other Christian communities in the United States and became known as health care sharing ministries (HCSMs). When the Affordable Care Act was passed in 2010, it was estimated that about 100,000 Americans participated in HCSMs but that number has grown to now more than 1.7 million Americans. Participants are attracted by the like-minded religious beliefs of other members and by the lower monthly costs compared to regular health insurance.
Any time the word “ministries” is included as an attributive noun, it implies that the other noun that it is describing is virtuous, righteous, and morally principled; however, all too often, HCSMs are anything but. Instead, HCSMs can limit patient access to healthcare, burden patients with unexpected healthcare costs, and leave physicians unpaid.
What is a health care sharing ministry?
There are currently 107 HCSMs certified by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. HCSMs are registered as 501(c)(3) non-profit charity organizations. Rather than paying monthly health insurance premiums, participants pay monthly membership fees. These fees are usually less expensive than health insurance premiums. Membership is limited to people who share a common religious faith and often must attest to regular attendance at a specific church. Because they are not considered to be regular health insurance companies, HCSMs are not regulated by state insurance commissioners in most states. When participants incur medical bills, they then submit those bills to the HCSM for payment.
There are a number of coverage restrictions. HCSMs can decide what conditions they will and will not cover and frequently do not cover healthcare expenses for conditions that they find morally objectionable, such as abortions, out-of-wedlock maternity expenses, contraception, sexually-transmitted diseases, obesity-related conditions, or smoking-related diseases. HCSMs are also not required to cover pre-existing conditions or cap out-of-pocket costs.
The problem with health care sharing ministries
On the surface, HCSMs sound like a fabulous idea – it is like getting health insurance without having to pay for all of the bureaucratic overhead costs. Furthermore, it eliminates having to pay for other members’ healthcare costs that are incurred by “immoral” behavior. But there is a dark side of HCSMs that can be financially ruinous to patients. Here are some of the specific problems with HCSMs:
- They do not have to cover pre-existing conditions. Most HCSMs will have definitions of pre-existing conditions such as any disease that you have had to be treated for anytime in the past 3-5 years. As a result, participants tend to be young, otherwise healthy individuals whereas older people who are more likely to have diabetes, hypertension, or high cholesterol can be denied. Some HCSMs will cover the care of certain pre-existing conditions (such as hypertension) but those participants are charged a higher monthly fee.
- Many conditions are not covered. Each HCSM can decide what conditions will and will not be covered. Some of the common uncovered conditions include those that result from tobacco use, drug abuse, alcohol use, obesity, or “non-Biblical lifestyles”. Most HCSMs do not cover mental health expenses. Durable medical equipment is often not covered. Most HCSMs will have a limit on the number of months any new medical condition will be covered – for example, only covering the first 3 months of prescription medications for newly diagnosed diabetes.
- Maternity care is often limited. Pregnancy is considered a pre-existing condition by most HCSMs and so they will not pay maternity expenses for the first 10 months of a participant’s membership. In addition, maternity costs are often only covered for married women. Abortions are generally not covered, with no exception for rape.
- Preventive care is generally not covered. This can include regular physical exams, check-ups, health screenings, cancer screenings, well-child visits, and vaccinations.
- Provider network restrictions. Some HCSMs will only cover expenses from in-network physicians and hospitals. These are usually very limited in number, making it difficult for participants to find a participating doctor. This is especially true if the participant requires hospitalization and may not have a choice in their ER physician, surgeon, hospitalist, anesthesiologist, radiologist, or pathologist. Other HCSMs will allow participants to see any physician and then the HCSM will attempt to negotiate fees with the physician or hospital after the fact.
- Participants get charged “standard charges”. Every hospital and every physician group has publicized standard charges for every service and procedure. The thing is that the only people who have to pay standard charges are those who are uninsured – patients with health insurance always pay less. The reason is that every health insurance company will negotiate contracts with every hospital and every physician group and those contracts will include an agreement for the maximum amount that the insurance company will pay for every service and procedure. If the hospital’s “standard charge” is less than the insurance company’s contractual limit, then the patient and the insurance company only has to pay the standard charge. However if the standard charge is higher than the contractual limit, then the patient and the insurance company only have to pay the amount of the contractual limit. Because of this, every hospital and every physician group in the country sets their “standard charge” higher than the most that they can get from their highest-paying insurance company contract. To put this in perspective, most hospitals and physician groups set their standard charges at several times higher than the maximum amount that Medicare will pay. In other words, no one with health insurance pays the sticker price – only the uninsured pay the sticker price. HCSM participants are considered to be uninsured so they have to pay the standard charge amounts. The result is that HCSM members get charged a lot more for any given service or procedure than people with health insurance are charged.
- No guarantee of payment. The HCSMs are not legally obligated to pay for medical bills. In months when the member fees are less than the members’ health expenses, the members may only receive a prorated amount of the funds to cover their healthcare bill. As a result, the members never know up front how much of their medical bill will be covered by the HCSM and how much they will be responsible for themselves.
- The maximum coverage amount is usually capped. Most HCSMs will have a maximum amount that will be paid for any given participant’s healthcare costs – for example, a $50,000 per year and $1,000,000 lifetime limit. Any healthcare costs above these limits are the responsibility of the individual participant. When being billed “standard charges” by the hospital and the physicians, few patients can get through an ICU admission for less than $50,000.
HCSMs are bad for doctors and hospitals
One of the most basic metrics in healthcare finance is the number of days in accounts receivable (AR). This is how many days it takes to get paid after a bill is sent out and generally ranges between between 30 – 70 days. If your average days in AR is greater than 50 days, it is a sign of problems in your revenue cycle department. As the treasurer of our Department of Internal Medicine, I would monitor our days in AR every month. For insured Americans, the hospital (or doctor) first sends the bill to the insurance company (or Medicare) and then bills the patient for the amount of their co-pay or deductible. Medicare and insurance companies are generally pretty quick in getting those bills paid. But with HCSMs, the patient gets billed and not the HCSM. The patient then submits their bill to the HCSM to have the their bill “shared” with the other HCSM participants. This process can take months and as a result, days in AR can skyrocket.
The patient is responsible for the doctor bill or hospital bill and will be charged the amount of the “standard charges”. This is often tens of thousands of dollars that most people do not have sitting in their checking accounts. HCSMs will often advise their members to request that the bill get written off as charity care or to set up a payment plan with the doctor or hospital rather than pay the full amount of the bill. That way, the member does not have to pay the full amount of the standard charges all at once and can spread out payments until the HCSM determines whether it will cover the bill and if so, how much of the bill it will cover. If the patient does not initially pay their medical bill on time with out-of-pocket funds, then the hospital or physician group typically sends that bill out to a collection agency which takes a percentage out of whatever money it collects on that bill, reducing the amount that the doctor or hospital ultimately gets paid. If the patient sets up a monthly payment plan, then the hospital or physician group’s cash flow suffers since payment may be spread out over a year or longer. In addition, the hospital or physician group has to pay someone to send out the monthly payment plan bills to the patient and monitor whether or not the patient actually pays those bills – this adds additional overhead expenses in the revenue cycle department.
For catastrophic illnesses, the HCSM will have a limit on the amount that it will cover, for example, $50,000.Once that limit is exceeded, the patient becomes responsible for everything over that amount. This can often be considerably more than patients have in savings with the result that they have to sell some of their assets in order to pay their medical bills. This can result in very late payment to the hospital or physician group and can result in legal fees incurred by the hospital or physician group. As an example, I had a patient who was a healthy farmer in his 40’s that decided to go without health insurance. He unexpectedly developed pancreatitis complicated by respiratory failure and was in the ICU for several weeks. If he had health insurance, the negotiated charges would have been about $300,000 and he would have had out-of-pocket co-pay expenses of a few thousand dollars. But since he was uninsured, we legally had to bill him the hospital’s standard charges which totaled more $1 million. He eventually had to sell the farm that had been in his family for generations in order to pay his medical bills and it took the hospital 2 years to finally get paid.
Many HCSMs will negotiate fees on behalf of their members, but only after the member submits their medical bills. This can result in a lot of frustrating haggling between the HCSM and the hospital or doctor. It would be like trying to run a restaurant and having the customers trying to negotiate a lower price for their meal after they have finished eating. Any business prefers to negotiate the price of a service before they provide the service rather than several months after they provide that service; doctors and hospitals are no different.
HCSM lessons from Ohio, Missouri, and Colorado
Liberty Healthshares is an HCSM based out of Ohio. It served 70,000 Christian faith families between 2014 and 2020. It had an annual budget of $56 million and employed 470 workers. Members sued Liberty alleging failure to pay for medical bills and that Liberty funneled money to the company’s founders. The State Attorney General additionally reached a settlement agreement with Liberty agreeing to pay thousands of dollars in fines. Last year, ProPublica reported that the family that founded Liberty used tens of millions of dollars of members’ monthly fees to buy the family a marijuana farm, $20 million in real estate, and a private airline company. Since it was an HCSM, it was not subject to the regulatory oversight required of traditional insurance companies and as a result, it got away with misuse of funds for years.
Medical Cost Savings was an HCSM based out of Missouri. Last year, its founder pleaded guilty in federal court to an $8 million wire fraud conspiracy that cheated hundreds of members. Medical Cost Savings paid only 3.1% of healthcare claims and in some years paid none of its claims at all. The founder and his co-conspirators pocketed more than $5 million.
Colorado is unique among states in that it requires financial reporting by HCSMs operating in the state. In the most recent annual report by the Colorado Department of Regulatory Agencies, Colorado HCSMs collected $78 million in annual membership fees in 2022 and paid out $66 million to cover members’ medical bills. However, in that same year, members submitted $180 million in healthcare bills to these HCSMs. In other words, the HCSMs only paid 37% of submitted medical bills. In Colorado, HCSMs used advertising, social media, and “producers” (independent brokers) to recruit new participants. Four of the 16 HCSMs operating in Colorado reported the amount they paid these producers, totaling $1.8 million. HCSMs also reported marketing themselves to employers to offer to their employees. Some HCSMs required members to first request charity care and financial support from local governments and consumer support organizations in paying the member’s health care bills before the HCSM would consider paying those bills.
Let the buyer beware is nowhere more pertinent than health care sharing ministries. Operating outside of the insurance regulatory environment, they can pretty much cover whatever healthcare costs they choose to cover and are particularly susceptible to fraud and abuse of funds. Although most HCSMs are legitimate non-profit organizations run by well-meaning members of religious faiths, some are run by scammers who prey on the devout by appealing to their faith-based values.
So, are HCSMs appropriate for anyone? The only people who should even consider using an HCSM instead of health insurance are those who are young, have no medical conditions, take no medications, are not obese, do not have sex outside of marriage, are non-smokers, non-drinkers, and are willing to pay for their preventative healthcare out-of-pocket. Even then, if you are hospitalized for a serious injury, diagnosed with a chronic disease like cancer, or hospitalized with an unexpected serious infection then it could still cost you hundreds of thousands of dollars and result in financial ruin. Using an HCSM is better than being totally uninsured, but not by much.
For hospitals and physicians, taking care of patients who use HCSMs causes an additional overhead expense and often results in no payment at all. In the best of circumstances, the HCSM results in a delayed payment for services rendered that puts an added burden on the revenue cycle staff. As a doctor, I’ll take a patient with regular medical insurance over a patient with an HCSM any day. Even Medicaid beats an HCSM.
January 13, 2024